Analisi Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo


Analisi Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo

Analisi Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo

In questo articolo trovate l’analisi Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo, il tolemaico e il copernicano, scritto da Galileo Galilei.

Galileo Galilei compose quest’opera nel 1632, durante il pontificato di Urbano VIII, fiducioso di un nuovo corso della Chiesa, in cui, con il pretesto di presentare in maniera imparziale i due maggiori modelli cosmologici della storia, espone in realtà argomenti assolutamente decisivi a favore del copernicanesimo.
Il testo si presenta come una commedia scientifica con evidenti caratteristiche di ordine teatrale. Il genere del dialogo risulta invece emblematico per la scienza poiché vuole esporre le proprie idee attraverso la discussione e la continua messa alla prova delle ipotesi formulate , vuole in un qualche modo persuadere l’interlocutore, ogni ragionamento viene costruito passo dopo passo.
Per presentare la teoria geocentrica dell’universo Galilei sceglie Simplicio, un personaggio pedante dalla mentalità assolutamente tradizionalista e conservatrice che espone il pensiero di Aristotele, visto come autorità fonte di sapere.
Per presentare e difendere la teoria copernicana sceglie Salviati (un nobile fiorentino, amico di Galilei realmente esistito) che incarna e mostra l’intelligenza razionale, rigorosa e assolutamente anticonformista dello scienziato moderno. Nella parte di moderatore troviamo Sagredo (un nobile veneziano amico di Galilei, anche lui realmente esistito) che rappresenta una personalità neutra e non oppressa da giudizi ma che tendenzialmente simpatizza per le dottrine innovative.
Continuiamo l’analisi Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo, esso è diviso in quattro giornate:
Nella prima Galilei pone sotto accusa la distinzione aristotelica tra il mondo celeste e il mondo terrestre, portando argomenti tratti in particolare dalle osservazioni gastronomiche divulgate nel Siderus nuncius e dai suoi studi di meccanica.
La seconda giornata espone la confutazione degli argomenti tipici, antichi e moderni contro il moto della Terra.
Nella terza giornata del Dialogo viene dimostrato il moto di rotazione della Terra e viene messa in risalto la teoria copernicana, che Galilei ritiene in grado di fornire spiegazioni di fenomeni in altro modo inspiegabili e di chiarire con assoluta semplicità problemi altrimenti complessi da esporre.
In conclusione per questa analisi Del dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo è necessario ricordare che nella quarta giornata troviamo la dottrina sulle maree di Galileo.




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